Capsule endoscopy is a new technology designed to examine the small bowel. The test involves swallowing a capsule (about the size of a large vitamin capsule) that takes multiple digital photos of the small bowel. The images are transmitted via small sensors attached to the abdomen with adhesive stickers. The small bowel is about 6 metres long, and the capsule takes about 8 hours to travel through it. You should pass the capsule naturally in your bowel actions. You do not need to retrieve the capsule; it should be flushed down the toilet. Capsule endoscopy is a day procedure. You will be required to attend the hospital in the morning for about 60 minutes for the leads and special belt to be attached. You will be given the capsule to swallow. You may then leave the hospital and return at 4pm to have the equipment removed. No sedation or anaesthetic is required. You will need to follow a diet the day before the test and take some bowel preparation.


This procedure allows the doctor to inspect the lining of your large bowel. Any abnormalities that may be present can be seen and photographed. Small pieces of tissue or growths (polyps) can be removed for further study and examination.


This procedure allows the doctor to inspect the upper part of the gastrointestinal tract, including the oesophagus, stomach and duodenum. Any abnormalities that may be present can be seen and photographed. Small pieces of tissue can be removed for further study and examination.


Liver Biopsy allows a small sample (the size of half a matchstick) of liver tissue to be obtained, which can be processed and examined under a microscope. It is often the only means of precisely diagnosing a variety of liver conditions. Your doctor will usually recommend liver biopsy only after a variety of other tests have failed to make a precise diagnosis. Liver biopsy may also be necessary to assess the progress of certain liver disorders. Other tests are not able to tell us whether the liver has sustained any damage. The biopsy itself involves preparing the skin over the right lower ribs with an antiseptic solution. A local anaesthetic is then injected. The skin should become numb in a few minutes. A needle will be placed in one of your hands prior to the examination, as medications need to be given after the procedure. The liver biopsy needle is passed quickly in and out of the liver. It is essential that you follow the instructions of the doctor performing the biopsy regarding holding your breath for a second or two during the actual biopsy procedure. As the local anaesthetic wears off, you may feel discomfort in the right side of the abdomen or on the upper aspect of the right shoulder. 




The electroencephalogram (EEG) is a medical test used to measure the electrical activity of the brain, via electrodes applied to your scalp. Another name for EEG is brain wave test. EEG can help diagnose a number of conditions, including epilepsy, sleep disorders and brain tumours. A person with epilepsy may experience a seizure, triggered by the various stimuli used in the procedure, including the flashing lights.


A Lumbar Puncture is where a special needle is inserted into the fluid around the spinal nerve roots in the low back. The test is performed in the x.ray department

NCS - 

Nerve conduction studies and EMG (electromyography) are special tests performed by Neurologists or an Electrophysiologist. Their purpose is to determine whether a patient's nerves and muscles are functioning properly. By placing small electrodes on the skin (and occasionally a tiny needle in muscles), a neurologist can examine the electrical properties of both nerves and muscles. This test is invaluable for picking up damage and dysfunction that cannot be detected through routine neurological examination.


A person experiences a migraine when the trigeminal nerve is stimulated. This nerve sends impulses from the eyes, scalp, forehead, upper eyelids, mouth and jaw to the brain. When stimulated, the trigeminal nerve may release substances (neurotransmitters) that cause painful inflammation in the blood vessels of the brain and the layers of tissue that cover the brain. This inflammation accounts for the throbbing headache, nausea, vomiting and sensitivity to light and sound.

Although the exact method of action in Chronic Migraine is not known, studies blocks the release of these neurotransmitters that signal the start and progression of pain in the brain. By limiting the release of these substances, BOTOX® have shown that BOTOX® reduces the number and severity of migraines that patients experience each month. 

Information for patients and families booklet.